|Common Names||Leutzmen, Swamp-dwellers, Shit-stockings|
|Social Classes||Nobility, Tacticians, Diplomats, Printers, Craftsmen, Musicians.|
Diplomats of the Empire, printers of precious manuals and educators of both low and high classes, the Leutz-Vixe are a recent appearance among Ailor Cultures, but one that has quickly captured a niche in Regalian society as having silver tongues and a societal intellectualism that makes them the epicenter of learning. The Leutz people emerged at a geographic crossroads in the Regalian Archipelago, and embody a middle ground between extravagance and austerity, militarism and culture, leading to an identity as the Empire’s most fervent centrists and mediators. Wherever there is any amount of peace-talks, a Leutz-vixe is always present as a middle-ground mediator, using their exceptional skill at negotiations to secure a lasting agreement. High court parents often invite Leutz-Vixe tutors hoping that the discipline, analytical skill and power of speech these unique negotiators have will rub off on their children so they one day can also become as astute and skillful. Even commoners experience the Leutz, as the vast majority of the teachers at Regalian schools are Leutz, while many of the most exquisite pastry bakers hail from the regions of Osteiermark and Carrais-du-Lion. The Leutz-Vixe are also exceptionally close to the Imperial Culture, owing to their “best of all worlds” approach to mix Ithanian and New Regalian while still distinguishing themselves from the Imperial melting pot.
The Leutz-Vixe culture first emerged in the resource-poor northern forest and swamp regions of Lorhauser and Osteiermark (named Lorenland and Ostmark respectively at the time) in 230 AC during a period of colonization. Ithanians from La Coutance fled resource-strained population centers, while New Regalians from Hinter Calemberg were seeking to spread Unionism in the vast forests of the Archipelago. Osteiermark and Lorhauser were beautiful lands, with the Vixerrois Sea to the south and the mighty Genevaud Alps to the north west, dense pine forests cascading the hills and feet of the mountains. Yet dangers lurked within, especially in Maraisburcke, a region that was covered in dense swamps where diseases were frequent and all manner of monsters lay hidden in the murky water, dragging down unfortunate explorers and foragers alike. The deep dark woodlands also hid Vampires and Cahal—Afflicted monsters who sought refuge in the remote areas yet untouched by the Regalian Empire’s colonial effort to control the entire Archipelago. This region was originally deemed poor in resources due to these disease-filled swamps inhabited by monsters. However, a singular Ailor tribe known as the Sarlann was known to have lived in the region before the Regalian Empire was founded. Very little is left of their pre-empire Culture, though there are two theories as to what happened to them. It is most frequently speculated the red-haired tribesmen assimilated into the Ithanian immigrants who now sport that very hair, despite Ithanian tendencies to have blond hair and New Regalians brown. However, some believe the New Regalians pushed the Sarlann people into infertile soils where they eventually died out.
Whatever the circumstances, both Cultures mingled until at a certain point they could no longer be told apart from one another in 240 A.C. The Ithanians spoke more like New Regalians, the New Regalians dressed more Ithanian, and before long, the mixed-culture region was rejected by both hardline Ithanians and New-Regalians as too unlike them. In isolation, the new culture could develop with its own distinct identity, and as more swamps were drained and the coastal city of Vienta was built, the population started booming. Large swathes of fertile soil in Elane, Shattel and Essire, the foothold of the Genevaud Alps, was used to plant fruit plantations, making use of the frequent rains yet warm climate where the hot air and vapor of Vultaro would cool and cascade into the soil near the cold mountains. In the rivers and waterfalls created by the mountains, the Leutz people caught freshwater fish, and in the deep forests, their New Regalian heritage of militarism brought plenty of weapons and fortifications to bear against the monsters that would soon be eradicated and pass into legend.
Over the decades, the Leutz regions would be properly integrated as Regalian provinces. At around 260 AC, the Leutz people had officially started calling themselves Leutz, to differentiate from the past. Many still had family and estates in the other lands, but experienced a different mode of living in Lorhauser and Osteiermark, where the fruits of their own labor was self-made wealth and a home to be proud of, wrestled from one of the last remaining wild regions of the Empire. Eventually, Leutz cities started springing up all over the place. The small Celery of Saalzen became a major Grand Celery where the Temple of Juvin’s Everlearning Prophecy stands high, it’s white marble towers emulating the distant Genevaud snowpeaks. The forest camp once called Prägern developed into the major trade-hub Praag, connecting Waldmark, Calemberg and the Leutz lands together as a major center of culture and learning. To the far east, the twin-cities of Budelle and Pester on the Branda River formed the union of Pesterbrud, a trade hub leading into Baldmark and the lands further east. In Lorhauser, major cities like Milosso, Lavoyare, Montua and Meuberge became established centers of Leutz-Vixe fashion and thread-craft, importing cotton and silks from Dragenthal and Vixhall alike and producing the world-renown Leutz-Vixe boutique clothing, giving rise to the art of Gold-thread embroidery—a uniquely Leutz invention.
Today, the Leutz culture is counted as one of the major Fineclass Cultures of the Empire alongside New Regalian, Imperial, Ithanian, and Dressolini, though out of all of these, only Imperial is smaller than the Leutz Culture, as the population base in Lorhauser, Tirgunn and Osteiermark still cannot compete with the massive populations of the Pays Sud cities, Calemberg heartland, or the Vultaro coastal jewels. Leutz-Vixe people can be found in all major centers of learning, trade and diplomacy. Most Regalian foreign diplomats are Leutz-Vixe (wherever the Ithanians don’t try to claim the same spot with sometimes less-than-stellar credentials but more nepotistic opportunities), and Leutz-Vixe tutors are by far the most sought after in both public and private education institutions.
Language and Dialects
The Leutz-Vixe language is called Lëtz, or sometimes just Leutz, or Lëutze. The language, like the culture’s origins, is a combination of New Regalian vocabulary and Ithanian grammar; to such a degree that the vocabulary is too foreign for an Ithanian to understand, and the grammar too complex for a New Regalian to follow. Leutz is a very formal language that demands formal speech (unlike common, it has several grammatical cases for formal speech to respectable individuals), and sounds very sharp and enunciated. Those who learned Leutz as a first language have a thick accent in Common, with rolling r’s and replacing “th” with “zh”.
Leutz-Vixe naming blends New Regalian and Ithanian customs. While it is perfectly fine for Leutz-Vixe children to be given names from these cultures like Jean, Carl, Juneau or Marabelle, the Leutz people also have their own naming customs, which are an expression of cultural pride for them. Below are a few example names for Leutz people:
- Male: Charel, Damien, David, Eliot, Gabriel, Gustave, Leo, Marcel, Noah, Pierre, Thierry, Arno, Christiane, Claus, Ernie, Francois, Jean-Baptiste
- Female: Ange-Mariam, Anika, Celine, Claire, Louise, Martine, Stephanie, Marie-Theresa, Desiree, Simone, Hilda, Sabine, Yvonne
- Unisex: Alex, Joy, Laure, Luca, Lynn, Pol, Laurence, Muriel, Josy, Rémy, Erny, Yves, Fabrice, Camille, Constante, Jeannot
Lifestyle and Customs
Family life among the Leutz is seen as more harsh and disciplinary than other Ailor cultures, due to the belief among the Leutz that discipline (and respect for family history and struggles) can only be taught with adversity and punishment. The Leutz are not so cruel that they would actively harm their children with corporal punishment, but expelling a child to live in an out-house, or grounding them, thus denying them the freedom outside of the home are commonplace (grounding is in fact a very Leutz invention). Leutz parents are very protective, and excessively invasive in the growing up of their children to ensure they have an easy path to progress later in life as adults. Despite this, Leutz families are also intensely closely-knit. Multigenerational homes are common (something inherited from the Ithanians), where the word of the patriarch or matriarch is law.
Every Leutz person has some sort of story of a repressive father or mother who showed only tough love and meant to teach their children how cruel the outside world could be, even in the relative safety of their urban centers. Some Anglian parents would point at the Leutz parents and call them cruel, though inversely, the Leutz parents would accuse the Anglians of simply setting their children up for failure later in life, with few lessons on language, etiquette and behavior, thus condemning them to simple labor jobs. Indeed, the degree of intellectualism is highest among the Leutz people in the Archipelago. By far, literacy is highest, while the Leutz on average also have the highest number of graduates from advanced learning academies and schools such as the Regalian Marshal Academy and the Imperial Institute of Learning. Leutz families also have a tight control over guild institutions, like bakery, fabric craft and musician guilds, often entirely inhabited by members of the same family and led by a band of brothers or sisters.
Leutz society has a so-called “situationally gender-segregated” norm. What this means is that in theory, there is no such thing as gender seperation; all genders can do the same things (the only exception being that women do not serve as soldiers or hunters). Situational gender segregation comes into play when it concerns guilds in specific. For example, a woman or a man can become a baker in the city of Lavoyare. If, however, a number of male bakers unite into a guild, that guild becomes the de-facto controller of all bakeries in the city of Lavoyare, and may start pushing out female bakers. This doesn’t mean it’s impossible for women to be bakers; most female bakers will move to the city over, Meuberge, for example, establish an all-female bakers guild there and push out all the male bakers. What caused this cultural notion to exist is unclear, but it has resulted in very specialized city trades and a lot of moving back-and-forth between cities, a habit that has given the Leutz people the means to make home wherever they settle.
As mentioned, Leutz childhoods can be very harsh but rewarding in the long-run as parents set their children up for high expectations and a good lot in life as adults. That being said, there is always the shadow-side of these extreme levels of interference with the growing up of Leutz children. Leutz children by far are the most exposed to tutors and public houses of learning. Osteirmark and Lorhauser are the only two regions in the Regalian Archipelago with publicly funded schools paid for by city authorities and staffed by local teachers, teaching children in biology, geography, history and language. In some cities, schooling is even mandatory until the age of 13, when parents can enroll their children into academies or hire private tutors. There is always an under-belly of Leutz teenagers who grow up to be deceitful and anxious over the judgement of their parents, a trend which has given a rise to Leutz sometimes also being seen as skeeving manipulators who use deception and disguise to achieve their self-serving goals. While many Leutz are excellent negotiators with genuine appeasement in mind, there are just as many Leutz who have set about creating the circumstances to abuse their position as negotiator to weaken both parties and enrich themselves with bad deals.
The Leutz people have a holiday for every second of the month, though sometimes holidays are skipped in favor of work. As much as there are 12 major holidays each year, most Leutz only celebrate half of them, unless they have the wealth and time to do all of them.
- January 2nd is the Kreuztag, a day in which the Leutz remember the Battle of Lodden Swamp. This is a supposedly legendary battle that took place between the early Leutz settlers and the monsters of Lodden Swamp (somewhere in the north of Tirgunn). It is said that the Leutz celebrated their victory with copious amounts of Ithanian wine and New Regalian beer, while wearing the carcasses of the monsters they slew to mock them. Leutz have monster-like onesies crafted for this occasion that they wear, while inviting other guests over wearing similar outfits, with everyone bringing their own favorite drink to add to the table, in a night of drunken revelry.
- February 2nd is the Croissantergrub, a holiday where the Leutz celebrate baking traditions with the Leutz Croissant. It is common for the Leutz to buy large amounts of croissants, and to eat them with butter and blackberry or raspberry jam, while throwing old croissants that have gone stale from last week like boomerangs at hoops to try and make them fly through hoops. Whoever scores the most hoops at the end of the day is Croissantekinnek, or Croissant King.
- March 2nd is the regional fencing tournament date at which all fencers participate in the Leutz fencing games across Osteiermark, Lorhauser and Tirgunn, facing off regional opponents to be crowned champion of their respective regions.
- April 2nd is Éischt Wuertspilldag, a day where the Leutz make crossword puzzles for each other with hidden meanings or words in the final conclusion when one completes the cross-word puzzle. These hidden meanings are often declarations of love, messages of support and sympathy, or just crude jokes. It is common to make several crossword puzzles, and hand them out to friends and family.
- May 2nd is Ravendag, a day in which everything is raven-themed to honor the Hinterlandic Raven, with entirely black clothing and made of raven-feathers and black cotton, black dyed hair, jet and silver accessories and horns that produce a sound similar to the raven call.
- June 2nd is Ritter Éier Dag where the Leutz celebrate and honor the knights of the empire. It is common for the Leutz people to gather baskets of gifts and hand them to Knights they know, or pass by in the streets. Gifts can be things that were home made but also food items or just items bought for self care like bath bombs or hair lotions.
- July 2nd is Hellege Dag where all Leutz people (even the men) wear veils to honor the God Emperors and Empresses, and do a pilgrimage past all the shrines and temples of whatever city or town they are present in. Sometimes, the local Temple will also coordinate a procession with them, showing holy relics out in the street, with Leutz wearing celebratory costumes called Hellege Kleed, very intricately detailed embroidered clothes with displays of the God Emperors and Empresses on them.
- August 2nd is Broderie Dag where every Leutz, no matter how skilled or amateurish, embroides messages on a handkerchief (usually bought from a store) and gives them as gifts to loved ones. The loved one is then expected to tie this handkerchief to their right arm, and those who wear many handkerchiefs at the end of the day are considered well-loved among the people.
- September 2nd is Zweet Wuertspilldag (the second holiday of the year of this kind), a day where the Leutz make crossword puzzles for each other with hidden meanings or words in the final conclusion when one completes the cross-word puzzle. These hidden meanings are often declarations of love, messages of support and sympathy, or just crude jokes. It is common to make several crossword puzzles, and hand them out to friends and family.
- October 2nd is Dag vum Gehorsam vun der Regierung, where the Leutz celebrate the unity and support that they have for the government by writing essays in the support of the ruling classes, nobility or more importantly, the central Imperial Government and the Emperor. It is common to choose one of these aspects of rule, and to write a flattering letter in support, often with rhyme or poetry.
- November 2nd is Päerd Bewäertung Dag, a day in which horses are praised and respected, and most Leutz gather to buy new horses. Horses are important in Osteiermark, where swift travel through the forest depends on sturdy horses that do not scare easily. The horse market in the Leutz lands is immensely lucrative, and horse lineage matters to the Leutz people. Most Leutz children have fond memories of receiving their first horse or witnessing their first horse show on this date in their childhood.
- December 2nd is Enn vun allem Dag, a day in which the Leutz acknowledge that existence and survival is persistent, but requires care and support otherwise it would become fragile. On this day, the Leutz people bring praises to their guards and soldiers, while also sending letters of support and good will to the Marshal’s Cabinet and the generals. The Leutz wear the so-called Lilliënmark Blom in their hair or hat, a purple flower that grows in the Irole Alps during winter, and has become a symbol for pro-Imperial support.
The Leutz are by far predominantly Unionist. They are considered the “Staunch Core” of Dogmatic Unionism, leaning away from the more puritan interpretations which they consider bigoted, but staying true to the traditionalist core. The Leutz are, unsurprisingly, also fanatical supporters of the Emperor, with pro-monarchist leaning sentiments immensely strong, especially in Osteiermark and Carrais-du-Lion, as well as Tirgunn. God Emperor Juvin is especially popular among the Leutz people on account of their intellectual leanings, however Allest is also popular among the military men of these people. Ness, meanwhile, is popular among the mothers and matriarchs of the Leutz, particularly those who seek to find and capture the lost and Afflicted souls in Tirgunn and save them from death by cleansing back to Mundaneness. The Leutz lands are also home to some of the wealthiest and most powerful Celeries, especially in Osteiermark, where the religious leaders control vast swathes of land, and in some regions are more powerful than the barons who rule the lands.
Literature and Folklore
Literature from Leutz authors all follow themes of military, with little exception. Poetry, fiction and romance authors are all placed below the works of generals, tacticians and admirals engaging with the world around them. In regard to more non-fiction work, this genre of their literature produces insight pieces on comparing and contrasting tactical theories, military campaign accounts, and theses on strategy, though sometimes obscured with flowery double-entendres of fashion and cuisine for comedic effect. Another major literary past-time is that of the Manual. The concept of usage manuals really took off in the Leutz lands and became a national past-time, to create manuals for things that average day people need or use, so that information can be transferred through places of learning instead of just by word of mouth. The guilds originally resisted the creation of manuals, keen on keeping their trade practices a secret, but eventually relented when they realized that manuals were also a great way to advertise their own products. Finally, there are works of semi-fiction that have become popular in recent times within Osteiermark, which is a Leutz genre of writing called “Epikont,” or “Epic Account.” These are pieces regarding historical military campaigns of the Regalian Empire that are often embellished with heroic Leutz main characters who achieve great feats in battle. As a result, Epikonts are viewed with favor by Leutzmen, but seen as questionable by other Cultures due to the lacking, if not non-existence presence of the Culture in these battles (mainly as they hadn’t been created yet in half of these works).
Leutz society defies the label of “failures” given to them by their Ithanian and New Regalian cousins and has managed to succeed if not thrive in their unique blended society, by eliminating what they consider drawbacks from their cultural cousins, becoming very proud of their accomplishments as a result. Because of that pride, and also due to still possessing a focus on both beauty and rarity, material valuables and rich experiences are highly valued by their society. Additionally, Leutz people are traditional in how they present and carry themselves in their daily lives. Stoicism is dictated as the proper way to compose oneself, and conversation is lacking between strangers. Furthermore, small talk is unpopular among Leutz people, and is instead called “Schwätztnäischt” by them, which roughly translates to “Nothing-speak.” Small talk and friendly conversation is mostly engaged in by family units, and it is customary to not act out or be overly friendly towards strangers, especially so because the Leutz believe that being overly familiar with strangers gives too much of one’s intentions away. The Leutz always aim to come across as genuine and sympathetic, but keep their own opinions and thoughts close to their heart and only for family to find out. Formality and practical nature is the custom of the Leutz people, and this way of acting is very commonplace. The Leutz actively partake in what they have dubbed “net involvéiert”. This was a commonplace term used by Leutz titleholders, which essentially just means “Non-Involvement”, and was incredibly popular during the Regalian Pessimism. The families of Brissiaud (a term used to define Lorhauser, Osteiermark and Tirgunn together) typically engage in political intrigue, but usually among themselves, which is seen as volatile and largely self-destructive by outside nobles, even if they are very controlled and organized towards good outcomes outside of their homeland. This has led to the concept of “ice outside, fire within,” a belief that whatever insanity or chaos can come from politics and the diplomatic playing field should only happen at home, so that any excesses are curbed when discipline really matters abroad.
While Leutz-Vixe is a very recent Culture, and largely remain in the realm of the modern-day, lacking much in the way of regional folklore, they still have a few tales either taken from peoples previously living in the region or from regions nearby, as well as the swamp monsters and monsters of the deep forests that they supposedly fought half a century ago. One of their original features of folklore is the creature known as Bullimelusse, the half-fish half-woman, the Sumpffësch, a monster that lives deep in the bogs and drags unwitting passer-bys into an early grave in the mud, and the Bullifeeën, the fairies of the swamp, who play pranks and make sink-holes in the ground to make people think they are about to die, only to discover that the sink-hole never goes deeper than waist-height, and allowing them to escape after they have gotten over their fright of impending death.
Leutz-Vixe Art in all aspects except Fashion, are identical to the Imperial Culture (and even then, Fashion is very similar). As such, to learn about Leutz-Vixe Arts, one can read the Imperial Arts page. For Fashion, see below.
Leutz fashion has often been called “The White of Imperial” in modern times, on account of it being extremely similar to Imperial fashion, yet using a dominant white-tone as opposed to black-tone. Women wear extravagant dresses, reminiscent of Ithanian fashion. Unlike Ithanian outfits, however (which is form-fitting), Leutz dresses are large and poofy, with wide skirts supported with a Crinoline or hoop-skirt. Leutz dresses also are less smooth and use a lot of frills and frocks to create a multi-layered approach to clothing. Jewelry is often gold with bright colored gems. It is unusual for Leutz women to show much skin, except the decolletee which is tastefully exposed.
Another style that the Leutz use is the so called ”deTus”, which is a light, white, or pastel colored dress with the waist just under the bosom, allowed to flow down to the ground. This is usually accompanied with a shawl, as well as a so called Spënder jacked, which is worn to cover the exposed arms and lightly dressed shoulders. Large hats are also common among the Leutz, especially with feathers or other floral arrangements in the brim. Men frequently wear high-waisted white pants, with black or red leather riding boots. On their chest they wear a frilly white shirt, over which some intensely colored satin overcoat is worn, usually with copious amounts of gold (or fake-gold) thread embroidery and riding gloves. It is even more rare to see men with their hands exposed. Glove wearing for men has become a sense of national identity for the Leutz, and as such, it would be seen as vulgar for men to not wear some sort of hand covering. Finally, Leutz male jackets are also much longer in the back than they are in the front, featuring long flaps of fabric called the Mënestaart, themselves often embroidered with family symbols or guild membership emblems.
Leutz hairstyles often lean on the more short and dignified side. Bangs are unusual and considered childish in adults, while women often do their hair up in all kinds of braids and hair-do’s that have longer hair made to look shorter by curling or weaving it up into a bun. Long hair is possible for Leutz women, but it is rarely allowed to hang loose in the front, which again, is considered something for children. Leutz women and men alike put decorations in their hair. For women this can be combs or even hair-nets with pearls and jewelry, while for men, the so called Laurelblätte is common, which a semi-laurel crown (semi in that it only reaches from behind the ears to the sides of the head, and should as such be considered ear-decoration). Facial hair among the Leutz is never allowed to be long enough to form full beards, though facial hair is extremely common among men and grooming into interesting shapes and neatly groomed appearances is very important. Ring beards are common, as are goatee and moustache combinations. Clean shaven faces are also possible, but only for those who wish to appear youthful. Finally, older women in the Leutz culture often wear colorful wimples with embroidery of their achievements and family descent on them. These so-called Harëttes, are symbols of pride and every Leutz woman has one, even if they traditionally only wear them in public after the age of 50. They are embroidered on their entire life and a whole industry exists in the Brissiaud lands solely built around the maintenance, cleaning and enlarging of Harëttes so that they last a lifetime, and women can be buried with them.
Leutz Fencing is the most practiced sport among the Leutz-Vixe people, and is championed in Brissiaud noble courts and guilds for its poise and entertainment value. The sport uses the Leutz Épée, practical rules, and is famously in contest with Dressolini Fencing, which is seen by the Leutz people as eccentric and over-the-top while the Dressolini retort that the Leutz have made a mockery of the sport by reducing the skill level of combatants. Less common among the Leutz are more physically direct-touch sports. The Leutz believe that any sport that entices any amount of sweat, is in itself not a sport and more of a vulgar physical exercise. A sport to the Leutz must be one that can be watched from afar, and done without becoming disheveled. As such, golf has also become more popular in recent times, as well as table-tennis. The Leutz did contribute gymnasiums to Regalian society. While physical training shops that offer lessons in martial arts and bodybuilding were already present, the Leutz created large halls filled with fencing mats and table tennis tables that can simply be used by anyone paying a modest entry fee to the building for maintenance, with common dressing rooms and bathing areas.
The Leutz-Vixe are a very active society outside of public life, and as such they rarely engage in strict leisure time. The boundary between leisure and politics is often blurred, as while many Leutz would consider hunting leisure, it is also the most common vehicle for diplomacy—to take one’s enemies or allies out on a hunting trip and use the countryside as a setting for intense negotiations. When the Leutz do have time off from work or their studies, the most common past-time is simply taking walks in parks, along rivers, having a picnic on a hill overlooking a lake, or making apple juice together with the family near an apple orchard. Leutz leisure is surprisingly simple, lacking many tools and accessories, and being simply about enjoying the abundant nature and its abundance around, while appreciating each other’s company while doing so.
The Leutz people often closely associate themselves with trees as, in their eyes, this represents the “Bos de Bris”, the concept of being rooted into the land by their Culture, but also the large forests that were native to their homeland that had to be conquered by the early colonists. It is exceedingly common for noble houses to use trees in some regard to their heraldry, or to plant what they call a “Kleng Bësch” or “Little Forest” around their estate or castle walls. Many use the Hinterlandic Raven or the raven, as well as any fantasy or mythical creature from the Vixerrois Sea, such as a Vannhestia, or a Water-lily-fairy, to identify the culture.
- Leutz people despise being referred to as Ithanians, and often get hastily aggressive when someone compares them to the other culture. They find this a grievous insult, and one of the few ways to break a Leutz’s composure.
- The practice of Kleederkafen is a common Leutz pastime, which is at the same time a huge industry in Brissiaud and Regalia proper. Leutz come together at clothing fairs where all discerning designers and tailors put their work on display, buying copious amounts of outfits, some that will never even be worn, and others as gifts. Leutz spend more money on clothing than even the Ithanians. This has given rise to the common term “shopping”, which the Leutz love doing in general.
- Curiously, the Leutz people do not ever cause direct insult. Even though insulting is a common pastime among Ithanians, the Leutz have long given up on the concept of name-calling or direct insult. Instead, the Leutz use sharp and witty sarcasm to try and insult someone, by asking rhetorical questions or making redundant statements to describe poor situations while inferring someone’s guilt in causing them without actually accusing them.